Only data is from UBC-14. → 15,000
Min/max: conservatively estimated as +/- 5,000
Female participation: could be potentially 30% as data is only for gold
Gold: All data is for gold

2018: 15,000

ARM-18 and IGF-18 replicate UBC-14

2014: 15,000

(UBC-14): Gold-only data produced by statistic modelling:

Expected ASM population: 15,000 
Estimated ASM gold production: 0.3 t/a
ARM-182018Barreto, M.L.,Schein, P., Hinton, J., Hruschka, F. (2018): The Impact of Small-Scale Mining Operations on Economies and Livelihoods in Low- to Middle-Income Countries. ARM, Envigado, PACT, Westcombe.
IGF-182018IGF (2018): Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. IIED/IISD, London, Winnipeg.
UBC-142014Seccatore, J., Veiga, M., et al. (Univ. of British Columbia - UBC) (2014): An estimation of the artisanal small-scale production of gold in the world. Scitotenv. 496.
GMA-182018UNEP (2018): Global Mercury Assessment 2018. Technical Background Report E-Annex. Chapter 3.2. UNEP, Geneva.
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ASM DATA - Country Database Record
Country CodeBWA
ASM StatusExisting (data assessed)
Country Count1
Data year2014
Publ. year2018
ASM Miners15,000
- gold15 ,000
Inc. DevMinno
- min.10,000
- max.20,000
- female5 ,000
ASM Commoditiesgold
  • country/botswana.txt
  • Last modified: 2022/10/27
  • by Felix Hruschka