Although based on statistic modelling, data from UBC-14 appear the most relistic. Rounded to closest 50,000. → 850,000
As other data differ widely, uncertainty is high and variation is estimated high at 25% (+/- 200,000)
Female participation: Perhaps less direct participation in garimpos, but regular in gemstones. Guess 15%: 130,000 (?)
Gold: Best guess is that 2/3 are gold miners: 600,000. The rest might be gemstone miners (especially in Minas Gerais!) and diamond

2014: 861,000

(UBC-14): Gold-only data produced by statistic modelling:

Expected ASM population: 862,000 
Estimated ASM gold production: 21 - 64.9 t/a

2014: 75,200

(SPDA-14): 75,200
Data apparently for gold only. Quote: “Recientemente en un Informe Técnico -Perfil del Oro (2009) MME-, los números apuntan a cerca de 75 mil en la Amazonía.

Sul do Pará: 15,500 
Norte do Mato Grosso: 12,000 
Amapá: 5,000 
Rondonia: 3,000 
Roraima: 1,500 
Gurupi: 1,200 
Amazonas: 1,000
Goias: 1,000

2013: 10,000

(IIED-13): 10,000

2003: 10,000

(MMSD-03): Estimate for MMSD research country: 10,000
MMSD data by CETEM (

1999: 5,800

(ILO-99): Employment: 100,000 - 200,000
Number of mines: 10,000
Illegal mines: +/- 90%

ReferenceYearCitationArchived CopyLink
ARM-182018Barreto, M.L.,Schein, P., Hinton, J., Hruschka, F. (2018): The Impact of Small-Scale Mining Operations on Economies and Livelihoods in Low- to Middle-Income Countries. ARM, Envigado, PACT,…
IGF-182018IGF (2018): Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. IIED/IISD, London,…
GMA-182018UNEP (2018): Global Mercury Assessment 2018. Technical Background Report E-Annex. Chapter 3.2. UNEP,…
UBC-142014Seccatore, J., Veiga, M., et al. (Univ. of British Columbia - UBC) (2014): An estimation of the artisanal small-scale production of gold in the world. Scitotenv.…
SPDA-142014Heck, C., coord. (2014): La realidad de la minería ilegal en países amazónicos. SPDA.…
IIED-132013Buxton, A. (2013): Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help? IIED,…
MMSD-032003Hentschel, T., Hruschka, F., Priester, M. (2003): Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining - Challenges and Opportunities. MMSD (IIED),…
ILO-991999Jennings, N. (1999): Social and labour issues in small-scale mines. Report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on Social and Labour Issues in Small-scale Mines. ILO,…
ASM DATA - Country Database Record
Country CodeBRA
ASM StatusExisting (data assessed)
Country Count1
Data year2014
Publ. year2014
ASM Miners850,000
- gold600 ,000
Data curation extrapolated
Inc. DevMinno
- min.650,000
- max.1,050,000
- female130 ,000
ASM Commoditiesgold, gemstone, diamond
  • country/brazil.txt
  • Last modified: 2022/11/10
  • by Felix Hruschka