Only recent data is from UBC-14: 91,000 but this seems high for 1,3 t/a. There is also a (small) 3T production. Best guess → 60,000
Min/max: conservatively estimated as +20,000 / -10,000
Female participation: could be potentially 30% → 20,000
Gold: UBC-14 data seems high. perhaps 50,000

2018: 91,000

ARM-18 and IGF-18 replicate UBC-14

2014: 91,000

(UBC-14): Gold-only data produced by statistic modelling:

Expected ASM population: 91,000 
Estimated ASM gold production: 1.3 t/a

1999: 10,000

(ILO-99): Employment: 10,000
Number of mines: n/a
Illegal mines (%): n/a

ILO-991999Jennings, N. (1999): Social and labour issues in small-scale mines. Report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on Social and Labour Issues in Small-scale Mines. ILO, Geneva.
UBC-142014Seccatore, J., Veiga, M., et al. (Univ. of British Columbia - UBC) (2014): An estimation of the artisanal small-scale production of gold in the world. Scitotenv. 496.
ARM-182018Barreto, M.L.,Schein, P., Hinton, J., Hruschka, F. (2018): The Impact of Small-Scale Mining Operations on Economies and Livelihoods in Low- to Middle-Income Countries. ARM, Envigado, PACT, Westcombe.
IGF-182018IGF (2018): Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. IIED/IISD, London, Winnipeg.
GMA-182018UNEP (2018): Global Mercury Assessment 2018. Technical Background Report E-Annex. Chapter 3.2. UNEP, Geneva.
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ASM DATA - Country Database Record
Country CodeBDI
ASM StatusExisting (data assessed)
Country Count1
Data year2014
Publ. year2018
ASM Miners60,000
- gold50 ,000
Inc. DevMinno
- min.50,000
- max.80,000
- female20 ,000
ASM Commoditiesgold, 3T
  • country/burundi.txt
  • Last modified: 2023/02/01
  • by Felix Hruschka