Recent assessment IDN-2020a appears coherent. → 3,600,000
Min/Max variation can be set very low, because assessment is recent. +/- 100,000 (~3%)
Female participation: 10% i.e. 360,000
Gold: ~1/4 of total miners in 2015; extrapolated to now ~ 900,000

2020: 3,600,000

(IDN-2020a): 3,600,000: An estimated 3,600,000 people were working in the ASM in 2018. This number is twice that of the official 2018 figure 1,454,256 (Central Bureau of Statistics) for total individuals employed in the mining sector inclusive of both ASM and LSM.

About 10% of the total ASM worforce in Indonesia are woman.
Based on the national data verification of 352 mining locations, gold accounted for a quarter of the minerals mined by ASM communities in 2015. (Note: at that time 1 Mio) ... In 2013...more than 300,000 people are directly employed in ASGM.

2014: 250,000

(UBC-14): Gold-only data produced by statistic modelling:

Expected ASM population: 250,000 
Estimated ASM gold production: 20 t/a

2013: 109,000

(IIED-13): 109,000

2003: 109,000

(MMSD-03): Estimate for MMSD research country: 109,000
MMSD study by C.Aspinall (

1999: 400,000

(ILO-99): Employment: 300,000 - 500,000
Number of mines: 77,000
Illegal mines: n/a

ReferenceYearCitationArchived CopyLink
IDN-2020a2020Delve (2020): Delve Country Profile:…
ARM-182018Barreto, M.L.,Schein, P., Hinton, J., Hruschka, F. (2018): The Impact of Small-Scale Mining Operations on Economies and Livelihoods in Low- to Middle-Income Countries. ARM, Envigado, PACT,…
IGF-182018IGF (2018): Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. IIED/IISD, London,…
GMA-182018UNEP (2018): Global Mercury Assessment 2018. Technical Background Report E-Annex. Chapter 3.2. UNEP,…
UBC-142014Seccatore, J., Veiga, M., et al. (Univ. of British Columbia - UBC) (2014): An estimation of the artisanal small-scale production of gold in the world. Scitotenv.…
IIED-132013Buxton, A. (2013): Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help? IIED,…
MMSD-032003Hentschel, T., Hruschka, F., Priester, M. (2003): Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining - Challenges and Opportunities. MMSD (IIED),…
ILO-991999Jennings, N. (1999): Social and labour issues in small-scale mines. Report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on Social and Labour Issues in Small-scale Mines. ILO,…
ASM DATA - Country Database Record
Country CodeIDN
ASM StatusExisting (data assessed)
Country Count1
Data year2020
Publ. year2020
ASM Miners3,600,000
- gold900 ,000
Data curation as reported
Inc. DevMinsome
- min.3,500,000
- max.3,700,000
- female360 ,000
ASM Commoditiesgold, tin, coal, diamond, sandstone, sulphur
  • country/indonesia.txt
  • Last modified: 2022/11/11
  • by Felix Hruschka