Total: Latest data is from Hilson 2016, although a higher number was reported by Hilson in 2015 quoted in ARM-18. → 500,000
Min/max: Hilson 2015 indicates “at least 500,000”, therefore population could be higher. But ASM population could also have decreased due to armed conflict. → 400,000 - 600,000
Female participation: no data. Might be low in a mainly islamic country and has possibly further decreased due to armed conflict insecurity. Best guess 5+%? → 30,000
Gold: all data is for gold → 400,000

2018: 500,000

(ARM-18), Table Annex 3: 500,000
Quoting Hilson & Hilson (2015):

2018: 400,000

(IGF-18): Table 3

Directly working in ASM: 400,000
Estimated number of dependants: 2,400,000
Main Minerals: Gold

2016: 400,000


Directly working in ASM: 400,000
Estimated number of dependants: 2,400,000

2014: 361,000

(UBC-14): Gold-only data produced by statistic modelling:

Expected ASM population: 361,000 
Estimated ASM gold production: 1.7 t/a

2013: 200,000

(IIED-13): 200,000

2003: 200,000

(MMSD-03): Estimate for MMSD research country: 200,000
MMSD study by S.Keita (

1999: 100,000

(ILO-99): Employment: 100,000
Number of mines: n/a
Illegal mines: n/a

ReferenceYearCitationArchived CopyLink
ARM-182018Barreto, M.L.,Schein, P., Hinton, J., Hruschka, F. (2018): The Impact of Small-Scale Mining Operations on Economies and Livelihoods in Low- to Middle-Income Countries. ARM, Envigado, PACT,…
IGF-182018IGF (2018): Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. IIED/IISD, London,…
GMA-182018UNEP (2018): Global Mercury Assessment 2018. Technical Background Report E-Annex. Chapter 3.2. UNEP,…
AMDC-172017AMDC (2017): ASM Sector Report. Selected countries policy profile review of…
HIL-162016Hilson, G. (2016): Artisanal and small-scale mining and agriculture: Exploring their links in rural sub-Saharan Africa. IIED,…
UBC-142014Seccatore, J., Veiga, M., et al. (Univ. of British Columbia - UBC) (2014): An estimation of the artisanal small-scale production of gold in the world. Scitotenv.…
IIED-132013Buxton, A. (2013): Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help? IIED,…
MMSD-032003Hentschel, T., Hruschka, F., Priester, M. (2003): Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining - Challenges and Opportunities. MMSD (IIED),…
ILO-991999Jennings, N. (1999): Social and labour issues in small-scale mines. Report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on Social and Labour Issues in Small-scale Mines. ILO,…
ASM DATA - Country Database Record
Country CodeMLI
ASM StatusExisting (data assessed)
Country Count1
Data year2016
Publ. year2018
ASM Miners500,000
- gold400 ,000
Data curation as reported
Inc. DevMinno
- min.400,000
- max.600,000
- female30 ,000
ASM Commoditiesgold
  • country/mali.txt
  • Last modified: 2022/10/27
  • by Felix Hruschka