Total: UBC-14 appears exagerated. Most recent IGF data (PAN-2020a) are inconclusive. Best existing estimation is IGF-18: 5,000
Min/max: Most likely data from IGF-18 are underestimated. → 5,000 - 15,000
Female participation: no data. Working hypothesis: 500 (?)
Gold: no data. Assuming that all data is for ASGM → 5,000

2020: "in the hundreds"

(PAN-2020a) by IGF:

The Panamanian ASM sector is small compared to other countries in the region. The numbers of small-scale and artisanal miners can be counted in the hundreds. 
Alluvial gold mining is scattered through the dense Panamanian jungles (Darién, in the central north of the country), and the little information available about these operations is insufficient to check whether mercury use is extensive. The size of the subsector would suggest that it would not yet be at comparatively alarming levels

Note: It is unclear whether the “hundreds” refer to individuals or to concession holders. Additionally it is obvious, that only formalized operations are considered, because there is little information on all others.

2018: 5,000

(IGF-18): 5,000

2014: 63,000

(UBC-14): Gold-only data produced by statistic modelling:

Expected ASM population: 63,000 
Estimated ASM gold production: 1.0 t/a

1999: 3,800

(ILO-99): Employment: 3,000 - 4,500
Number of mines: n/a
Illegal mines: n/a

ReferenceYearCitationArchived CopyLink
PAN-2020a2020IGF (2020): Mining policy assessment Panama.…
ARM-182018Barreto, M.L.,Schein, P., Hinton, J., Hruschka, F. (2018): The Impact of Small-Scale Mining Operations on Economies and Livelihoods in Low- to Middle-Income Countries. ARM, Envigado, PACT,…
IGF-182018IGF (2018): Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. IIED/IISD, London,…
GMA-182018UNEP (2018): Global Mercury Assessment 2018. Technical Background Report E-Annex. Chapter 3.2. UNEP,…
UBC-142014Seccatore, J., Veiga, M., et al. (Univ. of British Columbia - UBC) (2014): An estimation of the artisanal small-scale production of gold in the world. Scitotenv.…
ILO-991999Jennings, N. (1999): Social and labour issues in small-scale mines. Report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on Social and Labour Issues in Small-scale Mines. ILO,…



ASM DATA - Country Database Record
Country CodePAN
ASM StatusExisting (data assessed)
Country Count1
Data year2018
Publ. year2018
ASM Miners5,000
- gold5 ,000
Inc. DevMinno
- min.5,000
- max.15,000
- female500
ASM Commoditiesgold
  • country/panama.txt
  • Last modified: 2023/02/02
  • by Felix Hruschka