Total: Following DELVE-19 → 100,000
Min/max: Considering current gold prices, min is unlikely to be significantly lower than above total. According to SPDA-14 max could be in the range of 150,000 → 95,000 - 150,000
Female participation: 15% according to DELVE-19 → 15,000
Gold: All data are for ASGM → 100,000

2019: 100,000

DELVE-19: Country Profile Peru 100,000

ASM Employment: 100,000 directly, 500,000 indirectly 
Female Miners: 15% (15,000)
Formalization: >80% informal 

Materials mined by ASM
• Gold: Gold: 890,000 ounces in 2016
• Copper: Unknown 
• Coal: Unknown

2014: 70,000

(UBC-14): Gold-only data produced by statistic modelling:

Expected ASM population: 70,000 
Estimated ASM gold production: 40 t/a

2014: 150,000

(SPDA-14): 150,000
Data apparently for gold and “illegal” only.

2003: 30,000

(MMSD-03): Estimate for MMSD research country: 30,000
MMSD study by J.Kuramoto (

1999: 37,500

(ILO-99): Employment: 25,000 - 50,000
Number of mines: 1,550
Illegal mines: +/- 50%

ReferenceYearCitationArchived CopyLink
DELVE-192019World Bank (2019): 2019 State of the Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining Sector. World Bank, Washington…
ARM-182018Barreto, M.L.,Schein, P., Hinton, J., Hruschka, F. (2018): The Impact of Small-Scale Mining Operations on Economies and Livelihoods in Low- to Middle-Income Countries. ARM, Envigado, PACT,…
IGF-182018IGF (2018): Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. IIED/IISD, London,…
GMA-182018UNEP (2018): Global Mercury Assessment 2018. Technical Background Report E-Annex. Chapter 3.2. UNEP,…
UBC-142014Seccatore, J., Veiga, M., et al. (Univ. of British Columbia - UBC) (2014): An estimation of the artisanal small-scale production of gold in the world. Scitotenv.…
SPDA-142014Heck, C., coord. (2014): La realidad de la minería ilegal en países amazónicos. SPDA.…
MMSD-032003Hentschel, T., Hruschka, F., Priester, M. (2003): Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining - Challenges and Opportunities. MMSD (IIED),…
ILO-991999Jennings, N. (1999): Social and labour issues in small-scale mines. Report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on Social and Labour Issues in Small-scale Mines. ILO,…
ASM DATA - Country Database Record
Country CodePER
ASM StatusExisting (data assessed)
Country Count1
Data year2019
Publ. year2019
ASM Miners100,000
- gold100 ,000
Data curation as reported
Inc. DevMinno
- min.95,000
- max.150,000
- female15 ,000
ASM Commoditiesgold
  • country/peru.txt
  • Last modified: 2023/02/02
  • by Felix Hruschka