Total: IGF-18, mainly based on UBC-14, and most likely extrapolating ILO-99 are the most recent data. → 55,000
Min/max: As data appears to be based on old estimates, uncertainty is considered high, particularly on the upwards side. → 50,000 - 75,000
Female participation: no data. Working hypothesis 10% → 6,000 (?)
Gold: As gemstone mining appears to be more important, ASGM population might be limited. → 20,000 (?)

2018: 55,000

(IGF-18): 50,000 - 60,000 (55,000)

2014: 63,000

(UBC-14): Gold-only data produced by statistic modelling:

Expected ASM population: 63,000 
Estimated ASM gold production: 7.1 t/a

1999: 40,000

(ILO-99): Employment: 35,000 - 45,000
Number of mines: 500 - 600
Illegal mines: +/- 30%

ReferenceYearCitationArchived CopyLink
ARM-182018Barreto, M.L.,Schein, P., Hinton, J., Hruschka, F. (2018): The Impact of Small-Scale Mining Operations on Economies and Livelihoods in Low- to Middle-Income Countries. ARM, Envigado, PACT,…
IGF-182018IGF (2018): Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. IIED/IISD, London,…
GMA-182018UNEP (2018): Global Mercury Assessment 2018. Technical Background Report E-Annex. Chapter 3.2. UNEP,…
UBC-142014Seccatore, J., Veiga, M., et al. (Univ. of British Columbia - UBC) (2014): An estimation of the artisanal small-scale production of gold in the world. Scitotenv.…
ILO-991999Jennings, N. (1999): Social and labour issues in small-scale mines. Report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on Social and Labour Issues in Small-scale Mines. ILO,…
ASM DATA - Country Database Record
Country CodeVNM
ASM StatusExisting (data assessed)
Country Count1
Data year2014
Publ. year2018
ASM Miners55,000
- gold20 ,000
Inc. DevMinno
- min.50,000
- max.75,000
- female6 ,000
ASM Commoditiesgemstone, gold
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